The Truth Continues: Is Purple the Only Indicator of C60?
The Truth Continues: Is Purple the Only Indicator of C60?
Just as we started last week’s article, we’d like to take a moment and again, thank all our faithful followers who stand by our product. And as we mentioned before, we’d like to make perfectly clear, that here at Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil, we believe that C60 is an incredible discovery that needs to be shared and made available to everyone. Whether you are a mega-warehouse manufacturer, reseller using a purchased raw C60 powder, or simply a home-brewer, we believe that there is enough business and a need to help everyone. We have some great information that we would like to share with you.
Our end goal is to continue to educate the public about the nature of C60 and to show by scientific facts that Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil is a quality solvent free safe product with an abundance of C60. In the coming weeks, we will show you third party tests that document the quality and purity of our product. As we continue our series on the truth, i.e., questions and answers about Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil, we’d like to share our second installment in a series of blogs which will show the integrity of Greska’s Carbon-60 Sunflower Oil.
In our last report, we told you about a study conducted by researchers at the University of South Carolina. The study was funded, in large part, by the United States Navy. We refer to this study as the “Navy Study.”
The primary purpose of the Navy study, titled “Potent Solvents for C60“, was to determine what happens when C60 is mixed in various toxic solvents such as toluene, benzene and xylene. We learned that indeed, C60, when mixed with different solvents, produces a solution in a variety of colors including purple, pink, brown, and even green!
Today, we’ll share another study that will help you as a consumer learn more about C60. But first, let’s review why we are writing this report.
For months now, some have been saying the only true way to determine if one has Carbon 60 in one’s product is to see it turn purple. As the Navy study has shown, there are many different colors generated once C60 is placed in various solvents.
There are many YouTube videos and blog posts expounding the merits of purple and Carbon 60 Manufacturers and resellers of C60 products have not seemed to acknowledge any other method of identifying C60 other than the color purple. Purple, they claim, is the only sure-fire method of determining whether C60 existed in any product. If you didn’t have purple—you didn’t have C60.
Still others, ourselves included, maintained that the purple color comes not from Carbon-60, but from the presence of TOULENE and CARBON 60. When these claims were made, we were shouted down by our competitor manufacturers and resellers of C60 products. We, at Greska’s Carbon-60 do not know if these manufacturers simply don’t want the public to learn the truth or simply don’t know the truth—that residual toluene; unhealthy and possibly life-threatening solvents is indeed, the basis for the purple color solution.
Perhaps you’ve seen the video where a “scientist” appears to perform a scientific test to show there is no C60 in Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil by pushing it through a .22micron filter and having it emerge clear. We would like to extend our gratitude to this “scientist” for helping to prove that Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil does indeed contain pure Carbon 60.
The Ground-breaking Research: St. Petersburg State University, Russia
Now, thanks to ground-breaking research conducted in 2008 by a team of Russian scientists at the prestigious St. Petersburg State University, we now know purple is not the definitive color to indicate the presence of C60.
St. Petersburg State University is widely regarded as one of the best research universities in the world. Several prominent world figures have studied there, including Ayn Rand, eight Nobel Laureates, two Fields medal recipients (the gold medal of math), two presidents of Lithuania, one from the Moldavian Democratic Republic and two from Russia. The renowned composer Igor Stravinsky studied there, as did Dmitri Mendeleev, creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion Anatoly Karpov is also an alum.
Saint Petersburg State University is included in all ratings and lists of the best universities in the world and is one of the leaders in all indicators in Russia. The University was founded in 1724 by Peter the Great. So, clearly it has some bona fide credentials that can’t be dismissed.
What the Russian researchers discovered, after exhaustive research involving Carbon-60 and the lesser known Carbon-70 is that C60’s real color is not purple. The Russian research determined C60 is actually transparent or clear.
At the acclaimed St. Petersburg State University in St. Petersburg, Russia, researcher Dr. K.N. Semenov led a team that discovered amazing things about C60.
The team’s findings are detailed in a research paper titled, “Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils.” In this groundbreaking report, Semenov and his team showcase how they came to discover the true color of C60 and from where the purple color actually derives.
Dr. Semenov writes:
“The solubility of С60 fullerene has been studied in the following solvents: hexane, tetralin, carbon disulfide, perchloromethane, and butylamine; in some aromatic solvents: benzene, toluene, o-.xylene . . . “
After extensive research, Semenov noted the difficulty in studying fullerenes immersed in various oils. The problem, it seems, is that C60 and other fullerenes are extremely soluble in these oils, making detection extremely difficult, if not virtually impossible.
But what Semenov and his team discovered next was a bombshell that should have been heard throughout the C60 world. Semenov and his team discovered the true color of C60 when combined with natural vegetable oils.
“Fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time,” his report states. “Such solutions are completely harmless and compatible with human and animal organisms when they are prepared directly at the extraction of a fullerenes mixture from fullerene soot by natural vegetable oils, i.e. when they practically do not contain any harmful admixtures.”
The key phrase in that is, “absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time.”
And equally important, “when they practically do not contain any harmful admixtures.”
The Truth: What Color is Pure Carbon 60?
So, what about the color purple with regard to C60? The Russians, it seems, have something to say about that, as well.
“Standard fullerenes obtained as a rule from solutions in aromatic solvents (toluene, xylenes, dichlorobenzenes, etc.) inevitably contain remains of these solvents.”
Well now that’s one heck of an eye opener, isn’t it? So, let’s just let that sink in for a moment– “fullerenes obtained…from solutions in aromatic solvents…inevitably contain remains of solvents.”
The Russian study goes on to say, “Even after an hours-long high temperature (200–250°С) [or 392–482°F] drying in sufficiently high vacuum (0.01 mm Hg) the remaining content of solvents is from thousandth up to hundredth parts of weight %.”
If the Russian study is correct, and there is no reason to doubt it, then it is safe to assume that every C60 dose from a manufacturer that uses toxic solvents during their production process comes tainted, to some degree, with the remains of those toxic solvents.
Semenov goes on to report that standard drying of C-60 in a vacuum box DOES NOT remove all traces of the solvent. Instead, he says, ” the alternative complete removal of admixed solvents can be reached probably only by a vacuum high-temperature sublimation of fullerene at very low residual pressures (10–5 mm Hg).”
According to Semenov, this method is ”rather expensive and labor consuming, and, therefore, for example, the price for so-called ‘sublimated fullerene С60’ free from admixed solvents is 2–4 times higher than the price for “ordinary” fullerene С60.”
Step Two: There’s a Really Good Reason Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Isn’t Purple
We took a lot of criticism when our product didn’t turn purple in the YouTube video. So, we decided to experiment with our raw powder to see if we could get it to turn purple.
First, we added our pure raw C-60 powder to toluene. The solution did not turn purple. In fact, we had a hard time getting it to mix with the toluene at all. We admit we were confused and concerned. Greska’s Carbon-60 pure raw powder mixes readily and easily in sunflower oil, and it does not turn purple.
But then we had a breakthrough.
We learned that it is the solvent toluene that turns the solution purple when C60 is present. So, we soaked our pure raw C60 powder in toluene and left our raw C60 powder in toluene for weeks. After three weeks of soaking our raw C60 powder in the toluene, the solution finally did turn purple. To be clear though, without soaking raw C60 powder in toluene we would never have gotten the solution to turn purple.
A Question? How Stable is Purple?
On the highly-regarded blog site, LongeCity forum, patrons have been debating C-60’s true color for years. Some reported it as brown, others purple and still others report a deep red. In the research study, Dissolution of Fullerenes C60 and C70 in Organic Oils, the color of Carbon 60 in various oils is discussed. This research showed the oil initially turned purple, then after various time intervals, the oils turned, yellow, brown, and cherry red. “In the samples with addition of C60 one observes three stages of color evolution: color change from source color to purple (purple color corresponds to C60 dissolved in solvents like benzole, toluene, xylene), solution remain purple for a long time (tens of hours), and the final stage – the transform into a saturated “cherry” color.” In another research study, Solubility of Fullerenes in Fatty Acids Esters, the issue of color of C60 solutions is also discussed. “On standing in air, at room temperature the C60 fullerene solutions in vegetable oils are not stable, but change their colour from violet to reddish.” But, as a reminder, Dr. Semenov states, “Fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time.” This is another area that we suggest definitely needs more looking in to.
Other Benefits: Antioxidant Properties
Another important point discussed in the study was that the Russians, through extensive research and experimentation, did confirm the “anti-bactericidal and antioxidant properties…” of C-60.
As a producer of C60, we at Greska’s Carbon 60 Organic Sunflower Oil believe our obligation is to inform the public about how most Carbon 60 is processed. It is our hope that, armed with this information, you’ll become an educated consumer, and know the facts about all C60 products, you may make your purchases based on fact—and certainly not fiction!
So, what can you take away from this study? Let’s all agree:
- C60, also known as fullerenes, and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent or clear true solutions stable in time
- Purple is not the definitive color of C60
- Vacuum oven drying, even at a high temperature does not remove all solvents from C60 and some toxic solvents exist in C60 even after being baked at a high temperature
What else have we learned?
Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil does turn purple, but only after weeks of soaking it in As you can see, YouTube videos can be deceiving. We can all learn through research and study. We’ve attached the research study, Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils so you can read it yourself.
Coming Up Next: We’ll learn more about solution and colloidal suspension and why that’s important to Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil. And more importantly, why this is important to you the consumer. Stay tuned.