The Truth Continues: Polar and Non-Polar Solvents and Their Effect on Charge

 

The Truth Continues: Polar and Non-Polar Solvents and Their Effect on Charge

Once again, we really appreciate the continued support we received from our customers and visitors following our blog posts in this series. We are grateful for not only your support, but your positive feedback, as well as your patience.

This journey has taken us many months of testing and research, and we are eager to share the latest results with you demonstrated by our .22-micron filter test.

Let’s take a moment to recap what we’ve shared so far.

Last week’s blog, The Truth Continues: Solution vs. Suspension and How That Affects Greska’s Carbon-60, we explained and demonstrated in a video how we have C60 in both a dissolved solution and in a colloidal suspension. We also showed:

  • YouTube videos can be misleading. It’s important that you do your own research to understand the truth
  • Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil is both a solution and a colloidal suspension
  • The C60 molecule is considered a colloid
  • We now understand the difference between a solution and a colloidal suspension
  • A substance can be both a solution and a colloidal suspension

Before that, in our post The Truth Continues: Is Purple the Only Indicator of C60? we concluded:

  • C60, also known as fullerenes, and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent or clear true solutions stable in time
  • Purple is not the definitive color of C60
  • Vacuum oven drying, even at a high temperature does not remove all solvents from C60 and some toxic solvents exist in C60 even after being baked at a high temperature

In our first blog in this series, Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil: The Truth starts Here we demonstrated:

  • C60 dissolved in a solvent produces a solution that is purple, pink, magenta, brown, etc., depending on the solvent used
  • The solvents used in this study are toxic
  • Toluene is an effective agent to dissolve C60, but according to this study is not the most effective solvent
  • This test follows today’s industry standard for detecting C60. This method involves solvents


We Continue Our Series on Discovering the Truth

In this blog we will take another look at the YouTube video that purports to show our product, Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil being clear when pushed through a .22-micron filter. We will also explain why the black C60 is left in the filter. That is—we’ll explain why the colloidally suspended C60 did not pass through the .22-micron filter. Before getting into that though, we’d like to explain the difference polar and non-polar solvents and liquids. You’ll see why this is important a little later.

Solvents, or liquids, are either polar, non-polar, or dipolar. The determining factor that makes a solvent polar or non-polar is in the mechanical arrangement of the atomic bond between the atoms and the charge on the atoms.

Did you know water is polar?  A water molecule has a positive side and a negative side. Water, also referred to as H20, is made up of two Hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. These two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are atomically arranged in a “V” shape. The water molecule has two hydrogens on each leg of the V and one oxygen where the two legs of the V meet. Hydrogen is positively charged, and the oxygen is negatively charged. Because one side, or pole, is negative and the other positive, water is, therefore, a polar solvent. 

Other solvents, or liquids, are equally balanced, have no real positive or negative side. These solvents have no “poles” and are called non-polar solvents. And there are some solvents that have a bit of both non-polar and polar properties which are called dipolar solvents.

 

 

 

 

 

Technical Explanation

A solvent is any liquid that serves as the medium for a reaction. According to the website, MasterOrganicChemistry.com, solvents can serve two major purposes:

  1. (Non-participatory) to dissolve the reactants. Remember “like dissolves like” ? Polar solvents are best for dissolving polar reactants (such as ions); nonpolar solvents are best for dissolving nonpolar reactants (such as hydrocarbons).
  2. Participatory: as a source of acid (proton), base (removing protons), or as a nucleophile (donating a lone pair of electrons). The only class of solvents for which this is something you generally need to worry about are polar protic solvents (see below).

Now, let’s talk about polar and non-polar solvents. MasterOrganicChemistry.com has an excellent explanation:

  1. Polar solvents have large dipole moments (aka “partial charges”); they contain bonds between atoms with very different electronegativities, such as oxygen and hydrogen.
  2. Non polar solvents contain bonds between atoms with similar electronegativities, such as carbon and hydrogen (think hydrocarbons, such as gasoline). Bonds between atoms with similar electronegativities will lack partial charges; it’s this absence of charge which makes these molecules “non-polar”.

Dr. K.N. Semenov, Associate Professor of the Department of Solid State Chemistry at the Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University in St. Petersburg, Russia reported in his team’s paper titled “Phase equilibria in fullerene-containing systems as a basis for the development of manufacture and application processes for nanocarbon materials”:

“Fullerenes are almost insoluble in polar solvents and poorly soluble in acyclic saturated hydrocarbons; the solubility in the latter increases with increasing number of carbon atoms; this, in turn, attests to the insignificant role of the solvation mechanism of dissolution.

“The highest solubility of fullerenes is observed for such solvents for which the specific enthalpy of dissolution divided by the volume of the solvent molecule is close to this value for fullerene 2 ± 5. Such solvents are, for example, aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives.”

 

Polar and Non-Polar Interaction with C60

Now, let’s look at polar and non-polar interactions with C60.

Non-polar and polar solvents, or liquids, act differently with Carbon 60 molecules. The difference between dissolved solutions of C60 and colloidal suspensions of C60 also plays a part.

The charge on these solvents affects the charge on the C60 molecules. When the suspended C60 molecules react to a non-polar solvent charge they attract to each other. Similar to when static electricity causes a sock to stick to your shirt when it comes out of the dryer. Conversely, suspended C60 molecules come apart when exposed to a polar solvent.

This effect of the charge on C60 is significant enough to make it either pass through a .22-micron filter or stop it from going through the microfilter.

As an example, think of soap bubbles. remember when we were kids and blowing bubbles was a fun pastime? You could blow many bubbles that were independent and free-floating. Or, sometimes you’d blow some bubbles and they would stick together in clumps. Well just imagine many C60 molecules (think of them as the bubbles) stuck together. These will not go through the microfilter. But if they were not stuck together, the C60 molecules would pass right through the filter. Keep in mind though, bubbles are fragile and will break when touched—a c60 molecule is very hard and will not break when you try to push it through the filter—clumps of C60 molecules will just stay in the filter.

The static-like charge on C60 molecules is what holds the molecules together and prevents them from going through the microfilter.

If the molecules hold an attractive charge, like a static charge, they will bunch together. If the charge is dissipated and is neutral, the C60 will separate and easily pass through the microfilter. Now, if you had a solvent with the proper polarity it would dissipate the charge holding the C60 molecules together and then the molecules would be able to go right through the filter.

In our testing, we have found the charge polarity of the solvents plays a tremendous part in whether or not suspended C60 will pass through a microfilter or not.

One other thing to consider, all vegetable oils are non-polar. Non-polar solvents prevent the suspended C60 to pass through a .22-micron filter. This is why that Youtube video, which purports to show our C60 sunflower oil being pushed through a microfilter showed what appeared to be clear oil coming through the filter.

The dissolved solution of C60 is CLEAR! Dr. Semenov and his team reported this back in 2008 and we covered this in our blog The Truth Continues: Is Purple the only indicator of C60? two weeks ago. In their study, Dr. Semenov’s team reported that “fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time.”

With a colloidal suspension of C60, polar solvents will not let the colloidally dispersed C60 go through. But on the other hand, dipolar or non-polar solvents will let the colloidally dispersed C60 pass through a .22-micron microfilter. As far as we are aware, we are the only C60 oil company that has both a dissolved solution of C60 and a colloidally suspended C60 in our product.

About the Filter Demonstration Video

So, knowing what we know now, the YouTube video challenging the authenticity of our product and the negative conclusions presented about our product were misleading. Watch our video where we show you and explain why our Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil with the colloidally suspended black C60 passes through a .22-micron filter. It all comes through black, black, black.

We hypothesized the C60 in colloidal suspension was not passing through the .22-micron filter because the Carbon 60 molecules were attracted together, similar to a sock stuck to your shirt by static electricity right out of the dryer. It it was these “static clusters” that were clogging the filter.

We later confirmed through considerable experimentation that the polarity of the solvent, or liquid, really was the determining factor whether or not colloidally suspended C60 would pass through a .22-micron filter.

So, the charge on the solvent and the charge on the C60 is very significant. What we mean by that is, the charge of the C60 molecule in your body as it seeks out and shares an electron with electron-deprived free radicals. As we all know, free radicals inhibit a healthy bodily-function response.

This shows that all of our Carbon-60 molecules pass through the .22 micron filter. Again, proving that our Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil is super concentrated, with C60 both in solution and in a colloidal suspension.

 

How We Came to Our Conclusions: The Procedure; Our Product and Solvents

In a series of tests, we experimented with different solvents. We put our proprietary, solvent-free raw C60 powder into various solvents with different polarities.

PLEASE NOTE: The only time we use solvents is for testing. We do not use any solvents in making, or converting our raw C60 powder. Nor do we do use any solvents anywhere in any part of our process to make Greska’s Carbon-60 in Organic Sunflower Oil. We are very proud of this fact that we have a 100% solvent-free product.

We started experimentation and mixed our raw C60 powder with different solvents and saw that it went into a colloidal suspension and turned black just as it does in our sunflower oil. Then, we pushed it through a .22-micron filter. As you can see in the video, one solution came through clear and two solutions came through showing just as black as it was before it went through the filter.

This was an exciting discovery. It was just as we had predicted, and it proved what we had originally said from the beginning—how our product is super concentrated with both the clear dissolved solution of C60 and the black colloidally suspended C60.

So why did we use the .22-micron filter?

We used the .22-micron filter for all testing. The .22-micron filter appears to be the industry standard for filtering C60 oils before they are bottled or consumed. Also, the .22-micron filter is the filter size others used on their product when comparisons were done with our product. This seemed like the appropriate filter to use to test our C60.

What Have We Learned Today?

  • All the C60 in Greska’s does indeed pass through a .22-micron filter
  • Polarity of the solvents plays a determining factor in whether colloidally suspended C60 will go through a .22-micron filter
  • The charge on the solvent and the charge on the C60 is very significant
  • Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil contains both dissolved C60 and colloidally suspended C60
  • YouTube videos by competitors can be misleading

Thank You for Your Support
Thank you again for all of you who have stood behind us. We know that you were there and have had very good results with our product. This is surely why you have stood behind Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil. We very much appreciate your comments.

Coming Up Next Week
Stay tuned for next week’s blog, where we will share what a prominent local university found in our product.

2 Comments

  • Carlos Alberto Silva Fernandes Posted November 5, 2018 12:42 pm

    Wonderful explanations and demonstrations! Thank you very much!…

  • Robert Sedlar Posted November 7, 2018 11:06 am

    Awesome … I love the science applied here!!!
    The idea that the “other” brands of C-60 required two weeks of constant stirring of the C-60 powder, (solvent derived) and whatever oil was being used, (avocado, coconut, etc.) seemed “off” somehow?!? Why the need to constantly stir nano-particles for up to two weeks, unless “those nano-particles” were stuck together in clusters? It seemed odd that individual nano-particles wouldn’t easily disperse into the oil being used, and, now I understand. Thank you for the science and for this product, too.

Add Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.