The Truth Continues: Testing Greska’s Carbon-60™ for Safety
The Truth Continues: Testing Greska’s Carbon-60™ for Safety
In this installment of “The Truth Continues: Testing Greska’s Carbon-60™ for Safety” we will share the results of safety testing conducted at the Knoebel Institute for Healthy Aging (KIHA), University of Denver and Steep Hill Laboratories in Honolulu, Hawaii.
There have been many scientific and research studies conducted regarding the toxicity of Carbon 60 and it has been determined that isolated C60 by itself is not toxic. In fact, the Baati rat study published in 2012 was initially intended as a toxicity test. What the scientists found was unexpected! Not only was C60 is not toxic to rats but it appeared to extend the lifespan of the rats that were given C60.
We know Greska’s Carbon-60™ was safe for human consumption, as we are 100% certain our proprietary non-solvent method of producing our C60 uses NO SOLVENTS at any step of the manufacturing process. We then add our C60 to high quality food grade organic sunflower oil. In order to provide the best quality product to our customers, our objective was to verify and provide documentation to our customers that Greska’s Carbon-60™ was not toxic. We wanted confirmation, that not only was Greska’s Carbon-60™ manufacturing process non-toxic but there were no other toxic substances in our product.
Part One for Testing Greska’s Carbon-60™ for Toxicity
Part One of testing of Greska’s Carbon-60™ for toxicity was conducted at the Knoebel Institute for Healthy Aging (KIHA), University of Denver. Located at the base of the Rocky Mountains in Denver, Colorado, KIHA was founded in 2010 when DU received a generous gift from Betty Knoebel. Mrs. Knoebel was the widow of Ferdinand “Fritz” Knoebel, who was a pioneer in the food services industry.
KIHA’s mission is to create and implement solutions for aging issues through multidisciplinary research, education and outreach. Greska’s Carbon-60™ testing was led by Daniel Paredes, Ph.D., Assistant Research Professor whose specialty is aging neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s Diseases.
This study was conducted on rat cells, not human cells, therefore we can only confirm that Greska’s Carbon-60™ is non-toxic to rats brain cells.
Samples of neuronal cell culture of rodent (cerebellar granule cells) were exposed to different concentrations of Greska’s Carbon-60™. After 24 hours, there were no signs of any negative effects in the viability, morphology or cell death process as comparted to the non-treated cells.
The test results from KIHA of Greska’s Carbon-60™ being non-toxic was exciting news! Dr. Paredes continued testing and found other unexpected and interesting results.
In his continued testing Dr. Paredes was interested in taking the toxicity experiment to the next level. Given the reported antioxidant properties of Carbon 60, Dr. Paredes investigate the potential of Greska’s Carbon-60™ on cell protection upon confronting the cells with an extremally oxidant environment. In the next set of experiments, the goal was to observe Greska’s Carbon-60™ reaction when hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the cell culture media to induce cell death.
Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizing agent and can be used for bleaching, as a disinfectant and even as a component in rocket fuel. In the scientific research community, it is common practice that hydrogen peroxide is used to induce cell death in scientific research and experiments.
In the research article, Is Hydrogen Peroxide a Suitable Apoptosis Inducer for All Cell Types?, it states, “Hydrogen peroxide is currently the most widely used apoptosis inducer due to its broad cytotoxic efficacy against nearly all cell types.”
Jinmei Xiang, Chunyun Wan, Rui Guo, and Dingzong Guo, “Is Hydrogen Peroxide a Suitable Apoptosis Inducer for All Cell Types?,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2016, Article ID 7343965, 6 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7343965
How Was the Testing Conducted?
Using the same rat brain cell culture as was used in the toxicity testing, a control sample and Greska’s Carbon-60™ were prepared. After the addition of the hydrogen peroxide, following standard procedure, the expectation is to see significant cell death within 24 hours. When both samples were evaluated after 24 hours, the control sample (non-Greska’s Carbon-60™) showed 80% of cells dead. What was astounding was the brain cell culture with Greska’s Carbon-60™ added, when checked at the 24 hour point, there was only 40% cell death reported. That is an increase in survival rate of 50% when compared to the non-treated cells.
According to Dr. Paredes, “Adding hydrogen peroxide to this cell culture is like throwing an atomic bomb in the petri dish. There’s nothing that can prevent the cell death. To see this level of survival rate is remarkable.” Dr. Paredes continues, “Even though this experiment was done in rodent cells, there is a great probability that such protective effect of the Greska’s Carbon-60™ that we observed, also happens in a whole organism, including humans, this results merit further research to fully explore the potential of this molecule (Greska’s Carbon-60™) in the treatment of devastating conditions where oxidative stress is at the core of cell death”
So Why Did Greska’s Carbon-60™ Slow the Cell Death Caused by the Hydrogen Peroxide?
Before we get to further explanation of the test results, let’s review these definitions so that we can better understand how free radicals, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants fit together.
- Are naturally occurring due to metabolism (exercise)
- May also be caused by UV radiation, tobacco smoke, environmental pollution, toxic chemicals, infections, or poor diet
- Have a missing electron
- Are unstable and highly reactive (constantly looking for an electron to repair itself, causing damage to the neighboring molecule causing a chain reaction or domino effect
- Can damage cells, tissue and DNA through oxidation (oxidative stress)
- Are important to our immune system by attacking foreign bodies
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
- ROS are signaling molecules
- Body’s natural defenses to detoxify or repair damage
- Environmental stress (UV or heat) can cause ROS dramatic increase
- ROS increase can cause significant cell damage to lipids, proteins and DNA
- Hydrogen peroxide is considered ROS
- Kills cells by starting chemical reaction via lipid peroxidation
- Free radicals “steal” electrons from the lipids in cell membranes
- Is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants
- Occurs when there is an excess of free radicals
- Cumulative cell damage caused by excessive ROS,
- Molecules or compounds that inhibit oxidation by donating an electron to a free radical without becoming unstable themselves
- Oxidation is a chemical process that produces free radicals
- Can be a food, naturally occurring or dietary supplement
So, we ask the question again—why did Greska’s Carbon-60™ slow down the cell death caused by the hydrogen peroxide? A simple explanation is, it seems as if Greska’s Carbon-60™ is acting as an antioxidant. Let’s look at the chemical composition for hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is H2O2. That is, 2 atoms of hydrogen and 2 atoms of oxygen. If you remember from your basic chemistry lesson, water is H2O, which is 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Hydrogen peroxide is highly toxic to cells, causing cell death. It would appear that Greska’s Carbon-60™ was able to act as an antioxidant and neutralize one of the destructive oxygen atoms, thus dampering the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide. Simply put, by acting as an antioxidant, Greska’s Carbon-60™ was able to slow the cell death caused by the hydrogen peroxide. This is a significant and noteworthy finding that deserves further testing and research.
Now for the added bonus: Greska’s Carbon-60™ is such a small particle size that makes Greska’s C60 an incredibly effective antioxidant.
Part Two of Testing Greska’s Carbon-60™ for Safety, was a Test to Detect Any Toxic Heavy Metals
As the second step in confirming Greska’s Carbon-60™ is non toxic and safe, we tested for heavy metals at Steep Hill Laboratories.
Steep Hill Laboratories, with many locations throughout the United States is a highly regarded science and technology company focusing in lab testing, licensing, genetics and research and development for the cannabis industry.
We are pleased to report that the Steep Hill Certificate of Analysis (COA) for Greska’s Carbon-60™ shows that our product contains none if these heavy metals: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead or Mercury.
What Does Not Detected (ND), Limit of Detection (LOD), and Below Limit of Quantification (LOQ) Really Mean?
Not Detected (ND) means the substance being tested for was not found
Limit of Detection (LOD) is a term used in analytical chemistry to define the lowest quantity of any substance that can be detected with any analytical procedure.
Limit of Quantification (LOQ) is the smallest concentration of a substance that can be reliably measured by an analytical procedure.
So to review, the Steep hills laboratory report shows that no heavy metals were found in Greska’s Carbon-60™ in Organic Sunflower Oil.
Why is it Important to Test for Heavy Metals?
Heavy metals are described as metallic elements that are somewhat high in density compared to water. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury are considered some of the most toxic of the heavy metals and are therefore considered a high priority for public health safety. These particular heavy metals are known to cause many health issues when exposed at even low levels. Although heavy metals occur naturally in our environment there are many factors, usually man-made that increase our exposure to these toxic substances. Some examples include metal-based industries such as mining, foundries and smelter. Other man-made exposures come from an increase in usage of different industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical, purposes like coal power plants, nuclear power plants, manufacturing of plastics, textiles, microelectronics and paper. Some natural occurring events that contribute to our exposure to heavy metals include volcanic eruptions and erosion.
As it’s been several weeks since we posted our last article, let’s review our previous blogs in order to help our readers understand how all of these pieces fit together to dispel the false implications made in a YouTube video earlier this year.
In our first blog: GRESKA’S CARBON-60 ORGANIC SUNFLOWER OIL: THE TRUTH STARTS HERE we shared scientific studies that reviewed the different colors of solutions that C60 and different solvents produced when mixed together. The colors ranged from different shades of purple, magenta and even green and brown.
In our next blog: THE TRUTH CONTINUES: IS PURPLE THE ONLY INDICATOR OF C60? we explored the findings of prominent research scientist Dr. K.N. Semenov and his team as they studied the properties of C60 and stated that, “Fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time.” The team’s findings are detailed in a research paper titled, “Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils.” In this groundbreaking report, Dr. Semenov and his team showcase how they came to discover the true color of C60 and from where the purple color actually derives.
We continued our series: THE TRUTH CONTINUES: SOLUTION VS. SUSPENSION AND HOW THAT AFFECTS GRESKA’S CARBON-60. We proved our product does contain C60. We shared a video in our blog showing Greska’s Carbon-60, is both a solution and a colloidal suspension. Additionally, because we are both a solution and a colloidal suspension, we showed that our product is much more concentrated.
THE TRUTH CONTINUES: POLAR AND NON-POLAR SOLVENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHARGE. As we continued to present our evidence that proves you can’t believe everything you see in a YouTube video, we showed how polar and non-polar solvents can affect the polar charge of a molecule. That polar charge has a direct effect on why some particles can pass through a .22 micron filter and some particles do not pass through a .22 micron filter.
What Have We Learned So Far?
Let’s review what we’ve learned so far and see how all of these pieces fit together and prove that you can’t believe everything you see in a YouTube video.
- Carbon 60 dissolved in solvents such as toluene, does indeed, produce a solution that is purple or magenta.
- Greska’s Carbon-60 when soaked in toluene, under certain conditions, does turn purple.
- Manufacturers across the globe admit to using toluene in their manufacturing process.
- Toluene is toxic.
- Vacuum oven baking the raw C60 powder does not remove all the residual toxic solvent toluene from the raw powder
- Greska’s Carbon-60 does not use any toxic solvents at any step in our manufacturing process
- Pure dissolved solutions of C60 are transparent and stable in time
- Greska’s Carbon-60 Sunflower Oil when pushed through a .22 micron filter is clear
- Greska’s Carbon-60 is both a dissolved solution, and a colloidal suspension. The colloidal suspension is why it’s super concentrated
- Greska’s Carbon-60 doesn’t use solvents in our manufacturing process, so our C60 can’t form solvent bonds because no solvents are ever used in Greska’s C-60
- Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) pictures Greska’s Carbon-60 particle size is the smallest particle size of C60 commercially available
- Greska’s Carbon-60 purity has tested as 99.48% carbon and .52% oxygen, with no evidence of higher fullerenes
- When tested on rat brain culture, Greska’s Carbon-60™ showed no evidence of toxicity.
- Further testing showed Greska’s Carbon-60™ displayed antioxidant qualities.
Stay Tuned for Our Next Blog!
We have more exciting news to share!