The Truth Continues: Transmission Electron Microscope Pictures from the Colorado School of Mines
The Truth Continues: Transmission Electron Microscope Pictures from the Colorado School of Mines
As we continue our series, The Truth Continues, we are presenting more test results that confirms that Greska’s Carbon-60 Organic Sunflower Oil does indeed, contain C60 and why it performs so well. This week we’d like to share results from testing done on a Transmission Electron Microscope.
We’ve already shown that Greska’s Carbon-60 turns purple when we soak our raw powder in toluene, identifying it as C60. We’ve shown how and why our product comes through the .22 micron filter as a clear solution. We’ve demonstrated that Greska’s Carbon-60 is a solution and a colloidal suspension. We’ve explained and demonstrated that the polarity of a molecule can affect its ability to mix with different solvents. So, our next step was to really look closely at our product with a Transmission Electron Microscope. Fortunately, The Colorado School of Mines, located in Golden, Colorado, has a TEM and is quite experienced in this type of testing, and has worked with similar materials. We were able to get time to utilize this TEM to review Greska’s Carbon-60 raw powder to clarify the purity and particle size of our product.
Before we get to the results, here some background history and additional information about this university where we conducted our testing.
Colorado School of Mines was founded in 1874. The school specializes in the development and stewardship of the Earth’s natural resources. Colorado School of Mines ranked 82nd in the 2017 U.S. News & World Report “Best National Universities.” In the 2016–17 QS World University Rankings by subject, the university was ranked as the top institution in the world for mineral and mining engineering.
Transmission Electron Microscope
The Transmission Electron Microscope, or TEM, is a FEI Talos F200X CTEM/STEM.
According the Colorado School of Mine’s website, “The FEI Co. Talos F200X 200keV field emission scanning / transmission electron microscope was installed in the General Research Laboratory in the fall of 2015. The FEI X-FEG high brightness electron source delivers high total current, while the integrated EDS system with four silicon drift detectors (SDDs) offers mapping capabilities of up to 105 spectra/sec.”
The School of Mines website continues, “It has a TEM information limit better than 0.12nm. The STEM probe allows for an imaging resolution of 0.16 nm. STEM images can be viewed in bright field or with multiple dark field detectors, including a high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF) allowing for Z-contrast imaging.”
The equipment also features:
- Schottky Field Emission Gun
- 200kV Accelerating Voltage
- Conventional and Scanning Modes (CTEM/STEM)
- High Resolution (HREM): 0.12nm Information Limit
- Super-X EDS for Spectral Imaging
- High Angle Annular (HAADF) and Centered (CDF) Dark Field Modes
So, what does that mean in non-scientific terms? Here’s an explanation in language that us non-scientists can understand:
A Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is a very high-powered microscope capable to photomicrograph (a photograph of a microscopic object) pictures with resolution down to the nanoscale level or one billionth of a meter (which is much better than the Micrometer—one Millionth of a meter—resolution limit of a light microscopy).
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, a Transmission Electron Microscope is a “type of electron microscope that has three essential systems: (1) an electron gun, which produces the electron beam, and the condenser system, which focuses the beam onto the object, (2) the image-producing system, consisting of the objective lens, movable specimen stage, and intermediate and projector lenses, which focus the electrons passing through the specimen to form a real, highly magnified image, and (3) the image-recording system, which converts the electron image into some form perceptible to the human eye. The image-recording system usually consists of a fluorescent screen for viewing and focusing the image and a digital camera for permanent records. In addition, a vacuum system, consisting of pumps and their associated gauges and valves, and power supplies are required.”
Transmission electron microscopes are “capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes, owing to the smaller de Broglie wavelength of electrons,” according to Wikipedia. “This enables the instrument to capture fine detail—even as small as a single column of atoms, which is thousands of times smaller than a resolvable object seen in a light microscope.
“Transmission electron microscopy is a major analytical method in the physical, chemical and biological sciences. TEMs find application in cancer research, virology, and materials science as well as pollution, nanotechnology and semiconductor research.”
Elemental Analysis and Lacey Carbon Support Film
In our application, we used the TEM to perform an elemental analysis using HAADF (High Annular Dark-Field Imaging) on each sample.
We began by taking a very small amount of raw powder—TEM specimens should be less than 100 nanometers thick. This small sample of raw powder was placed on the specimen holder, a very small 3 millimeter (mm) mesh made from copper, with a lacey carbon support film. It is this lacey carbon film that you will see in the comparison pictures below as holes or a grid.
As you can see in the sample picture below, the lacey carbon support film, has many, many tiny holes that vary greatly in size across the span of one single piece of film.
After the raw powder is placed on the copper mesh with the lacey carbon support film, the sample is then placed in the TEM for observation.
The use of electron beams requires that the sample be placed in a vacuum chamber for analysis. An electron beam is produced by applying a high voltage to a hot tungsten filament, and accelerating the emitted electrons through a high electric field, typically 10-100 keV. The electron beam is then focused with magnetic field lenses to a typical spot diameter of 1-100 nm on the sample
When electrons penetrate a sample, they are diffracted to form a diffraction pattern. This diffraction pattern can be transformed with a lens to obtain the sample image. Since the wavelength of an electron is much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, diffraction effects occur at much smaller physical dimensions, enabling us to “see” down to very, very great magnification.
Using a TEM for Elemental Analysis
Additionally, a TEM can also detect different types of atoms and the number of these types of atoms in a sample. A simplistic explanation is that an electron beam is introduced which interacts with the atom generating an x-ray whose energy is characteristic of that specific type of atom. The number of x-rays detected as being from carbon atoms, oxygen atoms, silicon atoms, etc., are then used to quantify the amount of each element.
What Did the TEM Pictures Show?
As a reminder, when suppliers or manufacturers claim that their product is 99% or 99.99% pure—they are referring to the ratio of C60 to C70 and higher fullerenes such as C74 and higher. So, when you purchase a gram of 99.9% pure C60 it does not contain 99.9% C60. It contains other “ingredients” or other types of atoms, such as Oxygen, Silicon or Potassium. The TEM microscope at the Colorado School of Mines has shown a sample of C60 to contain as little as 83% carbon. You can see from the results above, the samples of C60 came back with varying results. Some samples tested fairly pure, containing only carbon and oxygen, including Greska’s Carbon-60. But some samples also tested positive for other elements including, Chlorine, Sulfur, and Magnesium. Some of the samples we tested claim to be vacuum oven baked and some claim to be sublimed.
When we tested Greska’s Carbon-60 raw powder, we found no evidence of higher fullerenes (i.e. fullerenes with 70 carbon atoms or more) only carbon and oxygen. Our product tested as 99.48% carbon and .52% oxygen. No other elements were detected. Therefore, in conjunction with the purple test, these tests conclude that Greska’s Carbon-60 is composed of about 99.48% Carbon in the form of Carbon 60 and about 0.52% oxygen.
At this point, we became curious about the elemental make-up of other carbon 60 products available on the market today. As you know, many manufacturers claim, anywhere from 95% to 99.9% purity, and we wanted to find out what that really means. So, we purchased the highest purity and cleanest C60 raw powder from several other C60 manufacturers to see what their product looked like using the TEM.
We never doubted that these other products contain C60, we were interested in looking at what else was in these products. And what we found was not only interesting, but somewhat alarming for some samples.
In all fairness, we wanted to show all samples at the same magnification, so that we were really comparing “apples to apples.” But as we ran several tests at different times, we did our best to show comparable magnifications. In any case, we believe that a picture is worth a thousand words.
The other very important detail we observed, was the particle size of Greska’s Carbon 60 raw powder was very, very small. As a comparison, we observed what appeared to be single C60 particles at the 5 nm magnification. As a comparison, we later observed other raw C60 powder samples that appeared as large crystals that ranged from100 nm to 400 nm in size.
Again, we’d like to mention that you, the reader pay close attention to the particle sizes and the shape of the particles in the pictures below.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Below are pictures of confirmed C60 molecules from third parties. As you will notice when you compare these photos with the pictures taken of Greska’s Carbon-60 with the TEM, you will see that Greska’s Carbon-60 looks remarkedly like these photos. Again, another confirmation that our product not only contain C60—but also incredibly small particles of C60! Not only small particles of C60—but the smallest form of C60 commercially available!
A Comparision of C60 TEM Pictures:
As we wrap up this article, we’d like to review our previous blogs in order to help our readers understand how all of these pieces fit together to dispel the false implications made in a YouTube video earlier this year.
In our first blog: GRESKA’S CARBON-60 ORGANIC SUNFLOWER OIL: THE TRUTH STARTS HERE we shared scientific studies that reviewed the different colors of solutions that C60 and different solvents produced when mixed together. The colors ranged from different shades of purple, magenta and even green and brown.
In our next blog: THE TRUTH CONTINUES: IS PURPLE THE ONLY INDICATOR OF C60? we explored the findings of prominent research scientist Dr. K.N. Semenov and his team as they studied the properties of C60 and stated that, “Fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time.” ” The team’s findings are detailed in a research paper titled, “Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils.” In this groundbreaking report, Dr. Semenov and his team showcase how they came to discover the true color of C60 and from where the purple color actually derives.
We continued our series: THE TRUTH CONTINUES: SOLUTION VS. SUSPENSION AND HOW THAT AFFECTS GRESKA’S CARBON-60. We proved our product does contain C60. We shared a video in our blog showing Greska’s Carbon-60, is both a solution and a colloidal suspension. Additionally, because we are both a solution and a colloidal suspension, we showed that our product is much more concentrated.
THE TRUTH CONTINUES: POLAR AND NON-POLAR SOLVENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHARGE. As we continued to present our evidence that proves you can’t believe everything you see in a YouTube video, we showed how polar and non-polar solvents can affect the polar charge of a molecule. That polar charge has a direct effect on why some particles can pass through a .22 micron filter and some particles do not pass through a .22 micron filter.
What Have We Learned So Far?
Let’s review what we’ve learned so far and see how all of these pieces fit together and prove that you can’t believe everything you see in a YouTube video.
1. Carbon 60 dissolved in solvents such as toluene, does indeed, produce a solution that is purple or magenta.
2. Greska’s Carbon-60 when soaked in toluene, does turn purple.
3. Manufacturers across the globe admit to using toluene in their manufacturing process.
4. Toluene is toxic.
5. Vacuum oven baking the raw C60 powder does not remove all the residual toxic solvent toluene from the raw powder.
6. Greska’s Carbon-60 does not use any toxic solvents at any step in our manufacturing process.
7. Pure dissolved solutions of C60 are transparent and stable in time.
8. Greska’s Carbon-60 Sunflower Oil when pushed through a .22 micron filter is clear.
9. Greska’s Carbon-60 is both a dissolved solution, and a colloidal suspension. The colloidal suspension is why it’s super concentrated.
10. Greska’s Carbon-60 doesn’t use solvents in our manufacturing process, so our C60 can’t form solvent bonds because no solvents are ever used in Greska’s C-60.
11. Greska’s Carbon-60 particle size is the smallest particle size of C60 commercially available.
13. Greska’s Carbon-60 purity has tested as 99.48% carbon and .52% oxygen, with no evidence of higher fullerenes.
Stay Tuned for our Next Blog!
In our next blog, we,ll look at results of our “smear” test. We were interested in the yellow and brown residue we saw in other C60 products when we examined them under a microscope. And we’re sure you’ll be interested in what we saw too!